The Future of Health?

Thesis: 

  • “Unfortunately, bacteria are smart and hearty. If you are a microbe that has been bombarded by these drugs, what would you do? Like all living organisms, you would evolve. What has emerged from this evolution are bacteria called “superbugs,” which are resistant to most if not all antibiotics that we have today” (Finlay and Arrieta 104).
  • Is it there because it tells the readers what they are going to be reading about and what the main issue that he is targeting

Audience:

  • The audience is mainly towards the general public, but also towards doctors/pharmaceutical companies, and farmers
  • He wants them to understand the crisis of the superbugs that are arising due to the negligence of pharmaceuticals and farmers use of antibiotics. He also wants the general public to understand the risk they are at for what could happen if a superbug infects them.

Logos:

  • His facts hits the points of every topic he brings up which supports everything he is claiming. His tone is relatively calm and sophisticated, but strong enough to show he is passionate about what he is trying to get across. 
  • “Recent research has demonstrated that the microbiome is essential for human development, immunity, and nutrition. Gilbert and Knight specifically note that ‘“There are at least one hundred microbial genes for every human gene, and they are responsible for many of the biochemical activities associated with your body, ranging \ from digesting carbohydrates in your food to making some of your vitamins”’ (8).
  • “Over the past several decades, antibiotics have been indiscriminately prescribed and misused. Finlay and Arrieta note that ‘“Between the years 200 and 2010 alone there was a 36 percent increase in the use of antibiotics worldwide …. One troubling thing about these numbers is that the use of antibiotics peaks during influenza virus infections, even though they are not effective against viral infections”’ (7). Other researchers have confirmed that many antibiotic prescriptions in the United States are being prescribed for all types of illnesses such as viral infections (e.g. flus and colds), which cannot be treated with antibiotics” (Finlay and Arrieta).
  • “A recent study published by the Journal of the American Medical Association analyzed two survey data sets collected by the Centers for Disease Control (Fleming-Dutra et al.). These two surveys collected information on the diagnosis and treatment for patient visits to two types of facilities.”
  • “In fact, about 70% of all antibiotics produced in the U.S. are given to livestock including chickens, pigs, cows, and pigs (Moyer).”
  • ‘Empirical evidence, like that for humans, has documented the relationship between the overuse of antibiotics in livestock populations and the emergence of superbugs.”

Ethos

  • The way he states who he is taking information from is credible. By using sources from government agencies, reporters, and his word choice in general when talking about these sources makes it sound credible, since it is. 
  • “Empirical evidence, like that for humans, has documented the relationship between the overuse of antibiotics in livestock populations and the emergence of superbugs.” 
  • “The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did establish guidelines that discourage the use antibiotics in animal feed and/or water to promote growth, and these guidelines were implemented on January 1, 2017.”
  • “A reporter from Scientific American investigating the use of antibiotics on pig feed lots describes this use: ‘“Beard [the pig farmer] planned to give them feed containing antibiotics – a necessity if they were to stay healthy in their crowded, manure-gilded home. Antibiotics also help farm animals grow faster on less food, so their [antibiotic] use has long been a staple of industrial farming”’ (Moyer).

Pathos

  • His use of pathos is honest and relatable to why he chose this subject of choice to begin with. It puts the issue of superbugs into perspective and shows how it is crawling around hospitals, a place where people are meant to be better. Not a place where they could possibly die from a superbug. 
  • “Antibiotic resistance in some parts of the world is like a slow tsunami, we’ve known it’s coming for years and we’re going to get wet” 
  • “My father was admitted to Christiana Hospital on December 16, 2016 with a diagnosis of idiopathic pancreatitis [ . . .]  Ten days later, he was on a ventilator in the surgical Intensive Care Unit because he had been infected through his pic line by MRSA, a superbug, which quickly spread through his entire body. My dad was eventually taken off the ventilator, but he never made it out of the ICU. Another antibiotic resistant infection attacked his lungs, and he died on March 5, 2017.” 
  • “Like thousands of people in the United States, my dad did not die from the illness that put him in the hospital. He died from a superbug, just one of several that now lurk in virtually every hospital in the U.S. waiting to find a new host. It is this personal tragedy that inspired me to investigate why superbugs have emerged and how to prevent more from developing.”
  • “What can be done about this looming health crisis and how many people will have to die unnecessarily before our federal government takes the threat of superbugs more seriously?”
  • “The soaring number of antibiotic-resistant infections poses such a great threat to society that in 20 years’ time we could be taken back to a 19th century environment where everyday infections kill us as a result of routine operations” (qtd. in Whiteman).
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