The King’s Credentials and Wife’s Potential

In 1958, Budweiser released an advertisement starring a husband, who seems frustrated with some construction work, and his wife, who is happily pouring him a tall glass of beer (see figure 1). At first glance, the picture seems innocent, but if you break it down you perceive the subliminal message it is sending to its audience. 

At the top of the picture sits the Budweiser brand name and below it rests its motto: “Where there’s life… there’s Bud.” Most, if not all advertisements include these critical aspects. Companies want customers to know what their product is and by using a catchy motto, they can easily draw in consumers. However, this motto also suggests more than just a catchy phrase. It states that without Budweiser beer, life simply is not possible. Any task, such as simple construction or maybe even the repair of a phone, cannot be done without enjoying a nice cold Budweiser beer. Putting this thought into customer’s heads makes the thought of purchasing beer far more appealing. Afterall, who would not enjoy a beer while hard at work? Certainly not the man featured in this picture. Before taking a look at the most eye catching part of this advertisement, there is one more important phrase positioned just under the man’s head. This phrase states, “THE KING’S CREDENTIALS: The King of Beers prints its ingredients right on the label. Know of any other beer that does?” Now this is just a straight up power move. Budwesier is asserting its dominance amongst all the different brands of beer. According to Budwesier, no other beer prints its ingredients on the label because only the King of Beers (Budweiser) can do this.

Above The King’s Credentials is the most eye catching portion of this picture. There is a man wearing a red collared shirt and holding a hammer as if he was just working on a project. His expressions seems a little frustrated and reads “oh well.” Behind him is his wife. She is a young blonde woman wearing a light pink sweater. She is smiling happily as she pours her husband a tall glass of Budweiser because she knows this may help him feel better. Or at least that is what the advertisement is trying to portray. Now, the target audience of this ad is not necessarily targeting anyone at random. Infact, it is targeting the female audience in this case. While the man is the main subject of this picture, it is the woman who is bringing the emotion to the ad. During this time it was assumed that a woman’s role in the house was to be the perfect housewife. Budweiser appeals to women by suggesting that if they serve their husbands Budweiser while they’re working it will make her and her husband much happier. You can tell by the face the man is making that even though he is frustrated, he is happier now that his wife has given him. It can also appeal to men, especially those who do not yet have a wife or significant other. This ad suggests that men in “perfect” marriages drink Budweiser which can influence consumer’s purchases even more.

The color of this picture is also important. Imagine this ad containing primarily dark or neutral colors. Instead of a red background and big white letters, pretend the background is white with black letters. This image is far less eye catching when compared to the actual ad. The color red has many significant meanings. It can mean death, blood, strength, or even love. In this case, the color red is used to symbolize the feeling of love the wife feels towards her husband in this ad. This is extremely convenient, not only does red represent love and make the picture pop, but it also is a common theme in the product advertised itself. By overwhelming customer’s senses with the color red, it makes it easier for them to begin associating red with the Budweiser brand. This tactic is basic conditioning and a very useful psychological tactic when one is trying to influence another’s actions. Of course, another visual aspect of this ad that is important is the glass of beer itself. The action of the beer being poured and the way it fizzes makes it seem fresh, refreshing and nearly drinkable off the page. This makes viewers more thirsty and more likely to purchase a pack of Budweiser because everyone knows alcohol is definitely hydrating.


The Importance of Utilizing Art Therapy in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia: the complete fragmentation of the thought process. Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe disorder that heavily impacts the prefrontal cortex, a part of the brain critical for cognitive thinking and decision making (Karlsgodt & Cannon, 2010). With various types of Schizophrenia, it is difficult to keep track of its different symptoms; however, most patients exhibit what doctors now call positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Positive symptoms include hallucinations and delusions which are considered “outward expressions” (Positive & Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia, 2019). In other words, positive symptoms mean a patient has lost touch with reality. Negative symptoms describe an “[internally] distorted emotional state” (Positive & Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia, 2019). This includes hyperactivity, confusion and disorientation, and agitation. Lastly, there are the cognitive symptoms. These symptoms include lack of attention, poor motor skills, deficits in learning, abstract thinking, and memory (Foster, 2018). The use of medication has proven fairly successful when treating schizophrenia, but what other methods can be used to treat Schizophrenia? I turned to the idea of art as a possible treatment.

            The use of art therapy in the treatment of psychological issues similar to Schizophrenia, such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and general Anxiety or Psychotic Disorders, is effective. Like Schizophrenia, ADHD attacks the frontal cortex of the brain, which means decision making, memory, social behavior, and cognitive functions are all impacted (Aacap, 2017). While medications for maintaining the symptoms of ADHD are available and reliable, preventing the condition (almost) entirely is far more desirable. In one study, Hina Ayaz from the University of Karachi focuses on the use of art therapy in the intervention of ADHD among children predisposed to the disorder. Her assessment concludes that art therapy can be used successfully in the intervention of ADHD (Ayaz, 2018). These positive findings are particularly important when considering the possibility of art therapy’s effectiveness on Schizophrenia. If this type of therapy is able to help address the symptoms of ADHD and intervene during its earliest stages, then there is also a possibility of it doing the same for Schizophrenia. But with hardly any research available, we will not be able to firmly reach this conclusion.

Of course, preventing most mental disorders during their onset is not entirely successful and depends on an individual’s specific circumstances. While the predisposing genetic factors increase the risk of developing Schizophrenia, it is the environment (childhood upbringing, psychosocial factors) that causes the onset of this debilitating disorder. Therefore, looking at the effects of art therapy on trauma related psychological disorders such as PTSD is critical. According to the American Art Therapy Association “art therapy is used to reduce debilitating symptoms” like mood or anxiety disorders, disorders that are also experienced by Schizophrenics (The Traumatic Impact and Aftereffects of Gun-Related Violence, 2019). If the use of art therapy is able to relieve the symptoms experienced and traumatic memories relived by those who suffer Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, then providing Schizophrenic patients with art therapy during a psychotic episode or a general therapy session may prove extremely successful.

When looking at basic treatment options for any psychological disability, options include medication and various forms of therapy. This means, pairing art therapy with current medications issued for Schizophrenia is more effective than using either method alone. Now, there are two categories of medication based on symptoms that are offered to treat Schizophrenia. One category is the first-generation antipsychotics (typical). These include medications like Thorazine and Prolixin and while they treat symptoms of Schizophrenia, they can also cause problems with motor functions (NAMI, 2018). These are terrible side effects that no one should have to endure. But what if there was a way to reduce the chances of these symptoms or prevent them? That is where art therapy can come in. Art therapy allows a patient to practice precise motor skills by painting, drawing, and coloring. Not only is this extremely therapeutic and beneficial, but it is also fun and utilizes the prefrontal/frontal cortex. The other category is second generation antipsychotics (atypical). These types of antipsychotics include Clozaril and Invega, which side effects include weight gain, diabetes, and other physically challenging impairments (Uçok & Gaebel, 2008). While art therapy cannot directly help patients with the physical side effects, it can help with any mood disorders caused by the physical side effects. Art therapy allows patients to express or project themselves in creative ways (Author, 2019).  If a patient is not able to communicate their thoughts through words, art can be utilized as a creative outlet and ultimately gives them a voice as well as a source of therapeutic comfort.

Unfortunately, without the proper scientific research to back this subject, it is difficult to fully understand the effectiveness of art therapy on Schizophrenia. What makes this matter even more disappointing is the thought that art therapy may be able to catch and address the early symptoms of Schizophrenia. Catching Schizophrenia before it becomes chronic is crucial, because the patient will be able to make a full recovery as long as they remain in the correct environment. Of course, this lack of research can change by promoting the theory of art therapy as a method of treatment for Schizophrenia. Platforms such as the American Art Therapy Association are wonderful for getting involved, learning about, and spreading information about this type of therapy to the public. Research on this topic must be considered because not knowing the full effects of art therapy on this debilitating disorder may be causing unneeded suffering. By furthering the research into this topic, rehabilitation rates for this terrible psychological disorder increase and Schizophrenic patients suffer less. If there is a chance that art therapy has a large impact on Schizophrenia it is crucial that we further research on this topic. It may also open doors to new ideas and innovation regarding psychological disorders such as Alzheimer’s.

See the source image
Fun painting of one of Louis Wain’s cats. He is a famous artist known for his psychedelic cat pictures. He also suffered from Schizophrenia and well… Art!

I’m Already High Anxiety

What worries me the most about this paper is the word count. I will either exceed the count completely or I will not be able to find nearly enough research on my topic to meet the word count. Of course, this raises the concern for available research. My paper is more scientific (I’ll be following the APA format by the way), so I rely heavily on previous research. Unfortunately Art Therapy and Schizophrenia do not have many research papers, so it is my job to try and persuade others on why research of Art Therapy’s impact on Schizophrenia is so important (bkwjejh).

So to sum everything up, future me is going to be like: “AAAAAAAA,” but as of right now I’m just chilling.

P2 Proposal

Initial Question: What means of therapy (besides medication) can be used to prevent, treat, or alleviate symptoms of Schizophrenia within patients?

  • Is Art Therapy an effective method of intervention when treating patients within the early stages of Schizophrenia?
  • Can video games be used to treat patients who suffer from Schizophrenia?

Space Colonization: Not The Ideal “Home” Away From Home

Can we colonize outer space? Yes and no. There are multitudes of theories, ideas, and plans that back up the concept of colonizing space. With all of our technological advancements, creating communities beyond the planet earth is not a far off idea. But is colonizing space a rational, safe, or even smart idea? Let’s take a step back to focus on the cons of making a “home” away from home.

One of the main ideas behind the move to outer space revolves around Earth’s climate change. Supposedly, if human beings move to another planet, we will reduce our carbon footprint and restore earth’s CO2 levels. Of course the notion is noble and the idea sounds perfect, if all humans picked up and moved to the moon, wouldn’t that create an even larger carbon footprint? According to Dan Kwartier, Human beings are crucial to the maintenance of oil plants, subways, electricity and even the survival of different kinds of species. Without 24/7 moderation, these systems fail. Oil plants catch fire and begin to burn for days at a time. Water mains or sewage lines combust and fill subways with water causing the land beneath cities to erode. In brief, with the initial disappearance of humans comes the immediate destruction of our earth’s land. This is not to say, however, that Earth’s condition won’t improve over time. It will just take thousands upon thousands of years for Earth to rebuild itself.

This Ted Talk sums up the impact of humans on the planet Earth and how much it depends on us to maintain it now.

Now you might be asking, well how is this bad? If you think about it, as Earth restores itself to a state similar to that of pre-human colonization, we continue our destructive tendencies on another planet. Not only do we begin to destroy another planet with pollution, but we introduce new microorganisms, diseases, or parasites to a new environment. We risk killing off any microorganisms that already exist on the target planet.

Colonizing another planet or moon does not necessarily lead to a happy ending. While our carbon footprint on earth may decrease over time, leaving our planet will perminantely alter nature and life itself on Earth more than it is now. As Earth’s conditions improve, the conditions of the planet being colonized will begin to decrease and the process will happen all over again.

A Review of The Ethics and Aesthetics of Photojournalism

Through her article “The Ethics and Aesthetics of Photojournalism,” Marina Smolens explores the differences between photojournalism and photographic art. In brief, society views photographic art as an expressive and creative outlet. Photojournalism, on the other hand, is branded serious and informative. But what happens if aspects of photographic art merge with photojournalism? It is this concept, according to Smolens, that lead to the excessive criticism and eventual debate concerning the ethicality of aesthetically pleasing photojournalism. The works of photojournalists have become increasingly “beautiful” (somethingsomethingsomething i really can’t think of a good transition lol). Smolens claims that “while photojournalism may be [exploitative], this exploitation is not always unethical and sometimes even necessary in creating an image that is both beautiful and impactful.” Smolens’ clear thesis is enough to persuade any reader of her opinion, but her effective use of ethos, pathos and logos make her argument successful.

Smolens provides an abundance of evidence from both professional and reliable sources to support her claim. Her references to well-known photojournalists, such as Sebastião Salgado, suggests she is well informed within the topic of photojournalism. Citing sources within her work reassures the audience that the information provided is reliable. An argumentative article crumbles without the use of correct grammar and formatting; however, Smolens proves her credibility and captivates the audience with her flawless writing. The formatting of her paragraphs keeps the reader interested. The success of this article relies on Smolens’ ability to connect to the reader’s emotions and create a deep feeling of responsibility. She uses trigger words such as “struggle,” “beautiful” and “suffering.” Smolens also does an exceptional job incorporating both personal stories and quotes of others to draw out more emotions.

Marina Smolens creates a successful argument through the use of her reliability as well as her emotional and logical appeal. While the quotes provide support for her argument, the sheer amount of them is overwhelming when they are placed so close together. It is easy to confuse her own words with the words of others. I do not believe, however, that this impacts the effectiveness of her argument. And if I were to change one thing about this essay, I would suggest incorporating more of her own personal stories (if any) into this article.

The Ethics and Aesthetics of Photojournalism

by Marina Smolens


Clear thesis within the first introductory paragraph: “While photojournalism may be exploitive, this exploitation is not always unethical and sometimes even necessary in creating an image that is both beautiful and impactful.”

Target Audience (who is the author reaching?):

The article is directed towards the general public to inform people, especially those with a critical eye, of the truths and meaning behind photojournalism.

 It is up to us to view the photos ethically (no idea if I used that right but it makes sense to me).

-The viewers are a driving force behind this shift towards more aesthetic images, just as they are influential on the ethics of exploitation in photography. As long as we remain engaged observers who are willing to consider, reflect, and learn, then the ethics of a photograph are upheld. There will be endless debate about the morality of photojournalism…

Ethos (moves which make the author seem credible and knowledgeable i.e., sources/citations, grammar):

References to Tim O’Brien a well known author (also wrote the novel The Things They Carried: extremely descriptive and well written story about the Vietnam War 10/10 would recommend). This might also appeal to some pathos with the quote/analysis that follows…

-Tim O’Brien’s “How to Tell a True War Story” explains the beauty that can be found amongst horror and violence and how the “truths” of a disaster are not always clear.

References to credible sources. “Code of Ethics” make me believe the author has done research on the topic and knows about said Code of Ethics. Considering this article is about ethics, this is very important information.

-This is an important line between basic documentary photojournalism and more artistic photojournalism. Not only does the journalist want to construct photographs that reveal truths about important events to the public, as is the essential goal according to the NPPA (“Code of Ethics”), but he also wants to create an experience for the viewer, as most artists strive for when sharing their work.

Multiple references to professional sources that make her argument more credible.

-Sebastião Salgado is a famous photojournalist who is well known for his photographs of migrants and refugees being “too beautiful” (Kimmelman). Therefore, it is possible for photojournalism to be considered aesthetic. A problem that arises with photojournalistic images being beautiful is the idea of “aestheticizing pain” (Anstead).

Pathos (emotion. Moves which generate human interest or emotional response…relatable examples, sad stories):

References to Tim O’Brien and quotes from his works. Evokes a lot of emotion from me personally because I’ve read his works and get super emotional about them.

-Tim O’Brien’s “How to Tell a True War Story” explains the beauty that can be found amongst horror and violence and how the “truths” of a disaster are not always clear.

-“The truths are contradictory. It can be argued, for instance, that war is grotesque. But in   truth war is also beauty. For all its horror you can’t help but gape at the awful majesty of combat…”

The author makes us feel a sense of responsibility with the following lines:

-The viewers are a driving force behind this shift towards more aesthetic images, just as they are influential on the ethics of exploitation in photography.

-There will be endless debate about the morality of photojournalism, but one thing is clear: no matter the manipulation, aestheticism, and exploitation, it is an image of real people and their realities, and viewers must always be mindful of that.

The mere goal is to inform, but with Pellegrin’s photographs, he wants to produce an experience.

People want their story to be told, and they want it to be told in a “unique” way. The beauty that photographers like Salgado and Pellegrin add to their images make the victims’ stories stand out. Is that not what they want? If we cannot help them, should we not at least acknowledge, and maybe even reflect and show compassion?

Logos (reason. Moves which connect points together logically, supported with relevant evidence):

Connect her points together with quotes and evidence from other professional photojournalists and credible resources

-“Remembering is an ethical act, has ethical value in and of itself,” says Sontag, “That we are not totally transformed, that we can turn away, turn the page, switch the channel, does not impugn the ethical value of an assault by images.

Kairos (occasion. Relevance):

Explains relevance of media/photography in our everyday lives. It’s not uncommon for us to come across photojournalism or photographic art. It is important for us to know about what the meaning behind these photographs are.

-Photography has revolutionized communication and the means by which we convey and share information. It has become very easy for anyone to take a photograph and share it with the world.

Supposedly the deeper meaning of raw photos are becoming less and less impactful, so she argues that in order to keep them relevant they need to be edited… what I’m trying to say is that today we need to be able to understand the importance of images rather than look past them so it makes this point relevant (this is a stretch).

-This is where photojournalism and photographic art overlap, and it is important that they do so, since, like Kimmelman said, images are starting to have less and less effect on people, and therefore, elements of beauty are essential to hold our attention.

Uhm Guys, Where Are We?

Even if you do not know exactly where you are going or how to get there, do not forget to enjoy the present. That is what I learned during my trip to Ecuador, after a very unexpected event.

“Emma?” My mom calls to me. “I need to talk to you.”

It is common knowledge that when your mother wishes to “talk to you”, what she really wants to know about is the secret you managed to hide for the past 3 months. But I go downstairs anyways and sit at the table to mentally prepare myself for the chaos about to ensue.

“Honey, I wanted to tell you that I signed you up for the school trip to Ecuador and the Galapagos!” She says with a big smile. “Your friends Cassidy and Abby have also signed up. It will be so much fun.”

A simultaneous wave of relief and excitement washes over me like water out of a bucket. I did not expect that at all. Excitement overcomes me and before I knew it, I pack my bags, get on a plane and then onto a small fishing yacht that sails Me, Cassidy and Abby to Isla Isabela of the Galapagos Islands.

 When we get to the island, I step off of the yacht and onto the warm white sand. There are Sea Lions, about 25 of them, lay sprawled out across benches, tree roots, rocks, and the sand. Tropical birds sing sweet songs and seagulls chase schools of fish. Off in the horizon there is the soft glow of a town, the town at which we are staying at. Everything seems like a dream come true. However, when I signed up for my school’s trip to Ecuador I never imagined that within 48 hours of setting foot on the island, my friends and I would find ourselves lost in the streets of Isla Isabela.

Before we settle down for the night, my friends and I decide that we want to explore the town. More importantly, we want to seek out the best shop to purchase snacks. We set off into a narrow alleyway while the sun still shines on the clay walls of buildings and puddles that accumulated on the dirt road after the previous night’s rain. After purchasing our snacks and walking out of the store, we are far too absorbed in our goodies to notice that we took a turn down the wrong alley way. On top of that, the sun set and left us in the pitch dark and with a loud clap of thunder it starts to pour. At this point the three of us stand under the one rain poncho available and panic.

“Hey guys, where are we?” Abby finally asks.

“Oh my god we’re lost and we only have Carlos bars to survive on!” Cassidy says.

“Calm down, calm down.” I chime in. “We’re lost, but I’m sure one of the locals knows where the hotel is. This is an island after all, I’m sure they know where to go.”

So we set off on part two of our Snack Expedition and admire all the different houses, most of which are only half built. We also notice various gift shops and convenience stores. Finally, we come across a small bakery with the aroma of freshly baked sweet bread and sugar. It seems as if it is closed, but a kind old lady welcomes us into the store with a “Bienvenidos” and offers us a few bags of goodies for only a few cents each. After we enjoy our pastries, I take it upon myself to ask for help. I try my best to explain our situation to the lady in Spanish and she understand enough to guide us in the right direction. As it turns out, the bakery is just right down the street from the hotel we are staying in! Finding the hotel was great, but knowing the bakery was so close to the hotel was even better.

My friends and I lost our way back to our hotel on Isla Isabela. But we came back to the hotel with more than just snacks. We came back with a lifetime of memories and a new perspective. Even if you lost yourself, take the time to enjoy what’s going on in the “now”, because you never know when you will be able to experience it again.

Totally Did Not Forget A Title

Hi everyone, my name is Emma Donahue and Delaware is my home state. I attended high school at the Charter School of Wilmington, and like 90% of my grade, I decided to spend the next four (plus one) years of my life here at the University of Delaware.

I applied to UD as a psychology major, but switched to Neuroscience after I decided a BS better suited my career path. And if it’s not clear enough already, I’m big time into mental health problems. I know that sounds absolutely whack to most people, but what can I say? I like the brain. More specifically, I want to know about schizophrenia and I hope to one day find out what gene makes people predisposed to schizophrenia.

When I don’t have my nose in the nearest psychology textbook, I like to spend my time drawing or learning about animals (both exotic and domestic). I’m also a huge nerd when it comes to all my TV shows.

I look forward to the rest of this semester and hopefully meeting some of you guys!