Image Analysis

We live in a world full of advertisements that surround us all the time. Whether we are at the grocery store, walking through the streets of downtown or in a movie theater, advertisements can be identified all over the place. However, humans often choose not to pay attention to them despite all the effort that is put into creating them. Advertisements include so much detail so that many are gone unnoticed. The image I chose to analyze is an advertisement for Coca-Cola. This advertisement includes many details and small additions that enhance it and make it more persuading. It is clearly expressed that the creator of this advertisement put great time and consideration into it.

Pictured is a close-up view of a Coca-Cola bottle with a background of a grassy field and a small piece of a person cut out on the left corner. There is also a quote which states, “open a Coke, open happiness.” The intended audience could be anyone, although Coca-Cola probably is trying to target mostly young adults because they most likely drink Coke most often. In this ad, Coca-Cola is attempting to present to the audience that their product will make them happy and is an enjoyable drink. 

By presenting the Coca-Cola bottle up close they are explicitly showing the viewers what the main focus of the ad is. This grabs their attention first so then they can see all the other details surrounding it. The quote is placed to the right of the bottle which is strategic so that viewers will see it directly after they look at the bottle. The quote is directly stating their main goal of the ad, that Coke is a product that will make them happy which is why they should purchase it. 

There is also a background image of a green grassy field with the sun brightly shining down on it. The colors used to create this are very bright and pleasing to the eyes, which correlate with the positive feelings they want the viewers to experience when looking at the ad. The addition of a ladybug crawling on the grass adds to the summery, happy, and positive feeling as well. 

Finally, there is also a depiction of part of a human’s leg and arm in the lower-left corner of the image. Although not much of the body is shown, it is efficient as it shows the connection this product has to people. It shows the viewers that they too can have a refreshing Coke to drink on a hot summer day and increases their likelihood of purchasing the product. 

This advertisement for Coca-Cola is very persuasive and efficient in grabbing the viewer’s attention and showing them why their product is so great and will make them happy. Coca-Cola successfully implements small details to their advertisement to show the positive connection there is with their product which will persuade more viewers to purchase it.


The hardships relating to sleep associated with narcolepsy patients

People with narcolepsy experience an increased amount of lucid dreams and nightmares, hallucinations, have higher dream recall and undergo cataplexy, a state of sudden paralysis of voluntary muscles, compared to healthy people. As people know, sleep is one of the most important aspects of life and getting good sleep is vital to succeeding in your waking lives.

People with narcolepsy experience many hardships related to sleep, causing them to live a more stressful life. Nathaniel Kletiman (1987) defined narcolepsy as, “One of the most suggestive spontaneous disruptions of the normal sleep-wakefulness rhythm” and is “characterized by repeated sudden brief attacks of sleep, occurring during the customary waking hours of the individual, usually but not always associated with attacks of muscular tonelessness known as cataplexy” (p. 233). 

In this research paper, two studies regarding dream characteristics of narcolepsy patients are explained and used to argue why narcoleptic patients experience many hardships related to sleeping and dreaming. In the study titled, Increased Lucid Dreaming Frequency in Narcolepsy Patients, it was highlighted how narcoleptics experience a higher frequency of nightmares compared to healthy patients. Due to this, they also experience lucid dreams more often. They experience fragmented sleep during the night time because of this, causing them to get a worse night’s sleep than healthy patients. They also often experience very vivid and dreamlike hallucinations during the night as well as during random sleep attacks during the day. Their day is often disrupted multiple times by sudden attacks of extreme sleepiness. More information can be found regarding these two studies at the following links, and

Another hardship narcolepsy patients have to deal with daily is the possibility of experiencing cataplexy at any time. Cataplexy is, “a brief episode of bilateral weakness without altered consciousness that is usually brought on by excitement or emotion” (Aldrich, 1999, p. 155). This means they might experience drooping of the face and limbs, slurred speech and it can even make them fall to the ground. This is very serious and narcolepsy patients have to worry about it happening at all times. 


It should be known how narcoleptics have many disruptions in their sleep and dreams which cause hardships in their daily lives. It is important for all people to be educated about this disorder and to understand why it is vital that research is continued so that one-day narcoleptics may not have to suffer from hallucinations, cataplexy, nightmares, lucid dreaming and much more anymore. 

P3: Plan and Anxieties

I am writing my research paper about the condition of narcolepsy and how those patients experiencing dreaming differently than other people. I will be including data from several studies that have been done regarding this which will help explain how narcolepsy patients experience dreaming. I also plan to include background information about the condition of narcolepsy in general as well as how a “normal” person dreams. This will then lead to my thesis and argument and will set up the paper well. 

I feel confident in my ability to manage my time and complete this paper efficiently. Although, I am worried because I have never written a paper of this length. I hope that I have enough data to create a strong argument and help people understand my thesis.

Follow up on topic proposal

I will be researching how people who suffer from Narcolepsy experience dreaming and how it differs from the way other people dream. I have found many books that provide background information about dreaming and narcolepsy to get a better understanding of each topic. I will also be looking at studies done that examine people with narcolepsy and evaluate different aspects of their dreaming. These results will help support my thesis and answer the question of how narcoleptic patients dream. Dreaming is such a complex thing in our lives but it fascinates me and I am excited to learn more about this specific aspect of it. 

P2 Proposal

In my research paper I want to explore dreaming and how different humans dream. Dreaming is a very complex and elaborate topic so I want to focus on how people who suffer from Narcolepsy dream. This will tie in lucid dreaming. I am very interested in psychology and we just learned a little bit about dreaming so I decided that I want to focus on a certain aspect and learn more about it. I think it will be a very interesting topic to learn and write about.

Why transhumanism is unethical

Transhumanism is a very complex topic so I will be focusing my discussion on how it is an unethical idea that should not be implemented in society primarily because of how it provides a loss of human identity and the meaningfulness of life as well as the unfairness it will cause. Transhumanism is the idea of transforming the human condition by developing and making sophisticated technologies to enhance human capability further than what it can do on its own. 

One of the aspects of transhumanism that proved it to be unethical to me is the idea of tampering with fundamental aspects of people to make them capable of things out of their reach. An example of this is the idea of maximizing humans lifespan. By doing this, human life is becoming less meaningful and in a sense shows a loss of human identity. As humans, we were made to learn how to deal with physical hardships in our lives involving our health and well being. If this were to all go away and we could easily get past any issue in our lives, it would degrade the value and meaningfulness of life we have today. 

Another aspect that makes transhumanism unethical is how it can cause unfair human enhancement in many different areas of life. Whether these be physical advantages or mental and cognitive advantages they will all affect the social plane. This could very well divide society between people who are capable of certain things while others are not because of the advantages some people have over others. These advancements proposed through transhumanism that can improve life will most likely not be available to all people. This will create a socioeconomic divide between people. Certain people won’t have access to these technological advancements while others are living with a great physical and economic advantage. 

These aspects of transhumanism prove to me that it is unethical and should not be implemented in our society. If it is, I believe that it will cause more problems than people think it will. It will cause a divide between people and degrade human identity and the meaningfulness of life we have now. 

Adaptation: To Meme or Not to Meme

In Maya Walker’s essay, “To Meme or Not to Meme”, she argues how social media memes are negatively affecting people’s mental health. She claims that because of how open society is becoming with talking about suicide and mental health problems, there has been an increase in depression-related memes. These memes are often humorous, which can be very triggering to some people. 

To support her claims throughout her essay, she appeals emotionally to her audience – which is very effective. She describes experiences from her own life and how internet memes played a role in her depression and mental health issues. These tactics make the reader feel more empathy towards her, which creates greater interest in her essay and ideas. She also presents logical information with credible sources, including the US Department of Health & Human Services and the American Psychological Association. Along with this, she includes many specific examples of memes from social media to help people better understand what she is talking about. This helps strengthen her argument and convince readers that social media memes are negatively affecting people’s mental health. Maya Walker used many strong tactics to create a more convincing argument for her thesis in her essay, “To Meme or Not To Meme”.

To Meme or Not to Meme

Analysis of “To Meme or Not to Meme”

Essay by Maya Walker

The thesis of this essay is about mental health in relation to social media, specifically memes. She makes this clear in the first paragraph, and continues to build off of it throughout the entire essay. 

This essay is targeted at people who may struggle with mental health issues and people who use social media. She links the two together in this essay and shows the problems that social media have on people’s mental health. 

The author shows her credibility (ethos) on this topic by talking about her personal experience with mental health (suicide) and social media. She claims that “internet memes played a role in my depressive spiral”. Since this is ultimately what the essay is about it shows her credibility on the topic. 

She shows logos by including specific examples of memes that back up her thesis. Pictures of them were included in the essay so that readers could view them and understand what she was talking about. She also includes quotes and statistics that support the claims and thesis in her essay. 

The author establishes pathos in her essay by talking about her personal experiences with mental health and suicide and how memes and social media played such a big role in it. The topic of mental health in general are usually very emotional, especially suicide. The fact that she told her story about it and how it affected her personally reached the audience on an even more emotional level. 

This essay also appeals to kairos because of how it is shown that it is a prominent issue in our world today and action needs to be taken right away to try and fix these problems.

An American Family

Growing up, I was always told my family was “perfect”. I am the oldest of four kids: my two sisters, Grace and Hannah, and my brother Jack. We were all very close, and our family was always involved with our community. We attended church weekly and went to sporting events often. Despite all of the wonderful parts of my childhood, during my freshman year of high school, my parents told me and my siblings that they were getting a divorce. 

In the moment of hearing those words come out of my dads voice, I felt as if my life was ruined. Tears began to stream out of my eyes and a pit instantly set in my stomach. I immediately began to think about all the changes that were going to occur in my life because of this. I was now going to have to live in two houses and only see my parents half the time I used to. I would have to move half of my belongings out and into a new house. If I forgot things I needed for the week, I had to bug my mom or dad to take me to go get it from the other house. I knew there were going to be many hard changes in my life, and I feared them. 

I struggled and had a hard time with these things for a while. Although, as time went on I adapted and learned why this was best. The things I learned from my parents divorce have helped me throughout the past four years and will continue to in my future. It has taught me to find the best in every situation I am in. To see why it might be best in the end, even if it doesn’t feel that way right now. I embraced more responsibly, began to make more decisions for myself and spoke up when I was upset. Ultimately, I could not see myself being the person I am today if I did not have to go through all of this. It helped shape me into who I am today and how I live my life. 


Hey everybody, my name is Nadalye Garlin. I’m from State College, PA, which is about three hours away from UD. I live 10 minutes away from Penn State. I’m majoring in Psychology, although I’m not sure what I want to do in the future yet. I have three younger siblings and a dog back at home. I love being active, I played soccer most of my life and ran track in high school. I’m excited for the semester!